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The term Commonwealth Caribbean is used to refer to the independent English-speaking countries of the Caribbean region.


Upon a country's full independence from the United Kingdom, Anglophone Caribbean or Commonwealth Caribbean traditionally becomes the preferred sub-regional term as a replacement to British West Indies.[1]



The independent island-nations that are considered as Commonwealth Caribbean include:

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda.svg/23px-Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda.svg.png Antigua and Barbuda

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/93/Flag_of_the_Bahamas.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_Bahamas.svg.png The Bahamas

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/Flag_of_Barbados.svg/23px-Flag_of_Barbados.svg.png Barbados

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c4/Flag_of_Dominica.svg/23px-Flag_of_Dominica.svg.png Dominica

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bc/Flag_of_Grenada.svg/23px-Flag_of_Grenada.svg.png Grenada

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0a/Flag_of_Jamaica.svg/23px-Flag_of_Jamaica.svg.png Jamaica

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Flag_of_Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis.svg/23px-Flag_of_Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis.svg.png Saint Kitts and Nevis

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Saint_Lucia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Saint_Lucia.svg.png Saint Lucia

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6d/Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines.svg/23px-Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines.svg.png Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/64/Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago.svg/23px-Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago.svg.png Trinidad and Tobago


Anglophone Caribbean also refers to the independent English-speaking countries known as the "Mainland Caribbean". These include:

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Flag_of_Belize.svg/23px-Flag_of_Belize.svg.png Belize, once known as British Honduras.

·        https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Flag_of_Guyana.svg/23px-Flag_of_Guyana.svg.png Guyana, once known as British Guiana.



The Anglophone Caribbean makes up a composite cricket team. The West Indies cricket team also includes Guyana, as another former British colony. Bermuda, the U.S. and British Virgin Islands, and the English-speaking Dutch West Indies also participate in Anglophone Caribbean-related sports activities such as 20/20 Cricket.



Antigua is a member of the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU). The Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB) issues a common currency (the East Caribbean dollar) for all members of the ECCU. The ECCB also manages monetary policy, and regulates and supervises commercial banking activities in its member countries.

Antigua and Barbuda is a beneficiary of the U.S. Caribbean Basin Initiative. Its 1998 exports to the U.S. were valued at about US $3 million and its U.S. imports totaled about US $84 million. It also belongs to the predominantly English-speaking Caribbean Community (CARICOM).



Antigua and Barbuda's economy is service-based, with tourism and government services representing the key sources of employment and income. Tourism accounts directly or indirectly for more than half of GDP and is also the principal earner of foreign exchange in Antigua and Barbuda. However, a series of violent hurricanes since 1995 resulted in serious damage to tourist infrastructure and periods of sharp reductions in visitor numbers. In 1999 the budding offshore financial sector was seriously hurt by financial sanctions imposed by the United States and United Kingdom as a result of the loosening of its money-laundering controls. The government has made efforts to comply with international demands in order to get the sanctions lifted. The dual island nation's agricultural production is mainly directed to the domestic market; the sector is constrained by the limited water supply and labor shortages that reflect the pull of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for about one-third of all tourist arrivals. Estimated overall economic growth for 2000 was 2.5%. Inflation has trended down going from above 2 percent in the 1995-99 period and estimated at 0 percent in 2000.

To lessen its vulnerability to natural disasters, Antigua has been diversifying its economy. Transportation, communications and financial services are becoming important.

Prime Minister

·       Gaston Browne is the 4th and current Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda, in office since 2014.

Education Minister

·       Honourable Michael Browne


·       90,901

Capital City:

·       SAINT JOHN'S (capital) 22,000 (2014)


·             English is the country's official language, but many people speak Creole English.[8]



Main office holders

As head of state, Queen Elizabeth II is represented in Antigua and Barbuda by a governor general who acts on the advice of the prime minister and the cabinet.

Office Name Party Since

·       Monarch Queen Elizabeth II 6 February 1952

·       Governor-General Rodney Williams14 August 2014

·       Prime Minister Gaston Browne Labour Party13 June 2014

·       Gaston Browne is the 4th and current Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda, in office since 2014. He led the Antigua Labour Party to victory in the June 2014 general election. Wikipedia

·       BornFebruary 9, 1967 (age 49), Potters Village, Antigua and Barbuda

·       SpouseMaria Browne (m. 2013)

·       EducationUniversity of Manchester

·       PartyAntigua Labour Party

·       OfficePrime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda since 2014

·       Marriage locationSt. John's, Antigua and Barbuda


The Cabinet of Antigua and Barbuda[1] is the executive branch of the government of Antigua and Barbuda.

·       Minister of Health & The Environment

Honourable Molwyn Joseph

·       Minister of Works and Housing

Honourable Eustace Lake

·       Minister of Trade, Commerce, Industry, Sports, Culture & National Festivals

Honourable Everly Paul Chet Greene

·       Minister of Social Transformation & Human Resource Development

Honourable Samantha Marshall

·       Minister of Foreign Affairs & International Trade

Honourable Charles Henry Fernandez

·       Minister of Information, Broadcasting, Telecommunications & Information Technology

Honourable Melford Nicholas

·       Minister of Agriculture, Lands, Fisheries & Barbuda Affairs

Honourable Arthur Nibbs

·       Minister of Education, Science & Technology

Honourable Michael Browne

·       Minister of State within the Ministry of Finance & Corporate Governance

Senator the Honourable Lennox Weston

·       Parliamentary Secretary in the Ministry of Legal Affairs, Public Safety, Immigration and Labour

Senator the Honourable Maureen Payne-Hyman

·       Parliamentary Secretary in the Ministry of Social Transformation and Human Resource Development

Senator the Honourable Londel Benjamin

·       Parliamentary Secretary in the Ministry of Trade, Commerce, Industry, Sports, Culture & National Festivals

Senator the Honourable Colin James


·    "antiguo" is Spanish for "ancient" or "old"; the island was discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1493 and, according to tradition, named by him after the church of Santa Maria la Antigua (Old Saint Mary's) in Seville; "barbuda" is Spanish for "bearded" and the adjective may refer to the alleged beards of the indigenous people or to the island's bearded-fig trees


·       parliamentary democracy (Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm


·       1 November 1981 (from the UK)



·       several previous; latest presented 31 July 1981, effective 31 October 1981 (Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional Order 1981); amended 2009, 2011 (2016)




·    common law based on the English model




·       has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


Diplomatic representation in the US:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif


chief of mission: Ambassador Sir Ronald SANDERS (since 17 September 2015)

chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016

telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122

FAX: [1] (202) 362-5525

consulate(s) general: Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:


the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda


We work in the Caribbean to reduce the region's vulnerability to economic shocks, high levels of violent and organised crime, natural disasters and climate change.


The Prime Minister visited the region in September 2015 and announced a quadrupling of the budget for 8 Caribbean Commonwealth countries eligible for aid. DFID’s regional programme to the Caribbean now amounts to over £400 million for the period 2015- 2020 and aims to:


·        fund major new infrastructure projects in eight countries plus Monserrat to boost economic growth and trade

·        create 10,000 new jobs, 50% of them for women

·        increase the number of people living in Jamaica who trust and have confidence in the police by 11%

·        enable 228,000 people in coastal communities, including small farmers, to better cope with the effects of climate change and natural disasters

·        increase the average score of Caribbean countries in the World Bank ‘Ease of Doing Business Index’ by 20%

·        empower communities to demand better services and greater accountability from decision makers


The DFID Caribbean regional office is based in Barbados. The head of office is also the UK director of the Caribbean Development Bank. DFID staff are also based in Jamaica and Guyana.


Sovereign states

·        Antigua and Barbuda

·        Bahamas

·        Barbados

·        Belize

·        Canada

·        Costa Rica

·        Cuba

·        Dominica

·        Dominican Republic

·        El Salvador

·        Grenada

·        Guatemala

·        Haiti

·        Honduras

·        Jamaica

·        Mexico

·        Nicaragua

·        Panama

·        Saint Kitts and Nevis

·        Saint Lucia

·        Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

·        Trinidad and Tobago

·        United States



·       Honourable Michael Browne

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

total: 14 years

male: 13 years

female: 15 years (2012)



Telephones - fixed lines:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

total subscriptions: 32,400

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 35 (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 172

Telephones - mobile cellular:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

total: 109,100

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 120 (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 189

Telephone system:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

general assessment: good automatic telephone system

domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 40 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is some 200 per 100 persons

international: country code - 1-268; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cable systems with links to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands) and Guadeloupe (France) (2011)

Broadcast media:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

state-controlled Antigua and Barbuda Broadcasting Service (ABS) operates 1 TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; ABS operates 1 radio station; roughly 15 radio stations, some broadcasting on multiple frequencies (2007)

Radio broadcast stations:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

AM 3, FM 17, shortwave 0 (2008)

Television broadcast stations:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

2 (1997)

Internet country code:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif


Internet hosts:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

11,532 (2012)

country comparison to the world: 130

Internet users:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

total: 81,900

percent of population: 89.7% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 174


The Siboney were the first people to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early Spanish and French settlements were succeeded by an English colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.



Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

Central America and the Caribbean


total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)

land: 442.6 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km

country comparison to the world: 201

Area - comparative:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

0 km


153 km

Maritime claims:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation


mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas


mean elevation: NA

elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Obama 402 m

Natural resources:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

agricultural land: 20.5%

arable land 9.1%; permanent crops 2.3%; permanent pasture 9.1%

forest: 22.3%

other: 57.2% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

1.3 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

0.05 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

total: 0.01 cu km/yr (63%/21%/15%)

per capita: 97.67 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

water management - a major concern because of limited natural freshwater resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

Environment - international agreements:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/graphics/field_listing_on.gif

Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a large western harbor




Dependencies and
other territories

·        Anguilla

·        Aruba

·        Bermuda

·        Bonaire

·        British Virgin Islands

·        Cayman Islands

·        Curaçao

·        Greenland

·        Guadeloupe

·        Martinique

·        Montserrat

·        Puerto Rico

·        Saint Barthélemy

·        Saint Martin

·        Saint Pierre and Miquelon

·        Saba

·        Sint Eustatius

·        Sint Maarten

·        Turks and Caicos Islands

·        United States Virgin Islands



name: "Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee"

lyrics/music: Novelle Hamilton RICHARDS/Walter Garnet Picart CHAMBERS

note: adopted 1967; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)